Workplace Free Expression

The Issue

Social media has radically transformed the ability of individuals to transmit and publish their thoughts and opinions. One consequence has been to blur the boundary between employees’ public right to free expression and their private obligations as employees. In Canada, as elsewhere, employees are increasingly being disciplined or dismissed for engaging in social media-based activities outside of the workplace. This raises important questions about the extent to which personal activity outside of work is becoming subject to employer control.

Why It Matters

The use of social media in the workplace and outside of work raises many ethical, legal, and union-related questions about the balance between legitimate and illegitimate employer restrictions on employee speech. Social media platforms offer myriad opportunities for amplifying individual expression, some of which may clearly be contrary to employers’ interests. As a result, there is ambiguity about the free expressive rights of employees to share publicly their experiences at work without fear of reprisal.  This is an important public policy, labour relations, and human rights issue.

Our Work

The Centre for Free Expression is collaborating with Professor Charles Smith and Daniel J. Paré on their research into workplace free expression. Priorities are examining how employment law is dealing with workplace expression in the context of social media, and how arbitrators are reconciling employees' free expression rights with their contractual obligation to avoid harming their employers' public reputation. Click here for the searchable, online database of legal decisions regarding freedom of expression at work. 


Past Event

Anti-Black Racism and Inequality: What Is to Be Done?

Adolph Reed, Jr. - In Conversation with Umair Muhammad


CFE Virtual Forum Series: Is It Time to Re-examine Limits on Workplace Free Expression?

Constitutional protection for free expression does not extend to the workplace. To the contrary, most employees face many restrictions on their free expression, which only seem to be expanding in the era of social media.

Past Event

CFE Virtual Forum Series: Is It Time to Re-examine Limits on Workplace Free Expression?

Panelists: David Hutton, Danielle McLaughlin, Charles Smith

Moderator: James L. Turk


CFE Launches Workplace Free Expression Legal Database

The Centre for Free Expression in collaboration with Charles Smith and Daniel J. Paré has launched the Freedom of Expression @Work Database today. The searchable, online database contains legal decisions regarding dismissals and discipline of employees for use of social media in the workplace and outside of work.

September 18, 2019

Blog Post

Free to express yourself outside of work? Workplace discipline in the age of social media

Barely a day goes by without reading a new story about employees being punished, fined, fired or shamed for engaging in online conversations about the workplace. Social media is radically transforming the relationship between employees and their employers in a host of ways not the least of which is its capacity to simultaneously augment peoples’ ability to express their voice and employers’ ability to monitor and discipline employees. 

By Charles Smith
Co-written by Daniel J. Paré