Additional Readings: Defund Big Tech, Refund Communities


Community Networks in Latin America: Challenges, Regulations and Solutions

Indigenous Connectivity Summit Policy Recommendations

Marcos Regulatorios para las Redes Comunitarias

Report done by Nicholas Casey and Brett McDonald connecting Apple's sourced gold and illegal mining, and the Indigenous investigative reporting by Agenda Propia in the Yaigojé Apaporis macro-region in the Amazon raising awareness around gold extraction by mining companies that source tech companies. 

Unleashing Community Networks: Innovative Licensing Approaches


Community Initiatives

AlterMundi (Argentina)
Citizen-driven Free or Open Source Software (FOSS) collective working on community networks since the 90’s

Hypha Worker Cooperative (Canada)

A team of technologists, designers, and community organizers who lelp organizations and communities redesign their relationships with digital technology

LibreRouter (Argentina) 

A Free Software and Hardware project. 

May First Movement Technology (US)

A non-profit membership organization that engages in building movements by advancing the strategic use and collective control of technology for local struggles, global transformation, and emancipation without borders. (Canada)

Provide online meeting and conferencing tools, powered by renewable energy running on cooperatively owned infrastructure.

Red Inalámbrica Comunitaria. REDINC. Red de Indígenas, Negros y Campesinos (Colombia)
The campesino, Afro-Colombian and Indigenous coalition working to pass policy to “common” a portion of the radio spectrum for use in community network initiatives in Colombia

Tecnologías Indígenas Comunitarias (México). 

Community initiative in the Oaxaca region of Mexico that pioneered approval for self-owned, self-managed community mobile telephony network in partnership with Rhizomatica. 

Rhizomatica (México)  
Work on regulatory activism and reform, development of decentralized telecommunications infrastructure, direct community involvement and participation, and critical engagement with new technologies.



Nicole Starosielski, The Undersea Network. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2015.



Barendregt, W. et al (2021) Defund Big Tech, Refund Community: Anti-Trust is Not Enough, Another Tech is PossibleTech Otherwise, 2021.

Schneider, Nathan (2019).. Decentralization: an incomplete ambition. Journal of Cultural Economy: 12, No. 4.